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North-Eastern states of India with its diverse topographic, climatic as well as ecological conditions support diverse life forms. Because of its unique and rich biodiversity, this region is a distinctive part of the Indo – Burma biodiversity hotspot along with two endemic bird areas. This region harbor around 170 globally threatened species. In the case of vertebrate fauna, this area is rich in their endemicity and enriched with a sizable number of endemic Icthyofauna (138), Amphibian (18 species), Reptiles (7 species), Aves (7 species) and Mammals (8 species). As increasing population and various anthropogenic activities are standing high as a serious threat to the biodiversity of the world. Unfortunately, the region too experiencing an increase in population growth and subsequent high demand for natural resources. Thus, various developing and anthropogenic activities along with other natural calamities are pushing the biodiversity of the area towards its decline. As a result, around 15 vertebrate species are critically endangered and 70 species are being considered as endangered. Thus, in this chapter, we will be focusing on the present IUCN status of the endemic species and endangered species of the region along with the conservational
approaches presently under execution. Further, stress will also be given on the adverse effect of natural calamities on the biodiversity of the area and the possible scope of improvement in conservation strategies.
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